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Acknowledgement to Reviewers of International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2013
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3481-3494; doi:10.3390/ijms15033481
Article

Purification and Characterization of Aporphine Alkaloids from Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Their Effects on Glucose Consumption in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

1
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1
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2
,
1
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1
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3
 and
1,3,*
1 School of Life Science, Yantai University, 30 Qinquan Road, Yantai 264005, China 2 School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, 30 Qinquan Road, Yantai 264005, China 3 Key Laboratory of Tibetan Medicine Research, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV’s activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v). In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity), 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity), 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity), and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4%) respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did.
Keywords: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn; aporphine alkaloids; high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC); isolation; 3T3-L1 adipocytes; glucose consumption Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn; aporphine alkaloids; high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC); isolation; 3T3-L1 adipocytes; glucose consumption
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Ma, C.; Wang, J.; Chu, H.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Z.; Wang, H.; Li, G. Purification and Characterization of Aporphine Alkaloids from Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Their Effects on Glucose Consumption in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3481-3494.

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