Abstract: We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0–60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway.
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Lee, H.S.; Cho, H.J.; Yu, R.; Lee, K.W.; Chun, H.S.; Park, J.H.Y. Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2722-2737.
Lee HS, Cho HJ, Yu R, Lee KW, Chun HS, Park JHY. Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(2):2722-2737.
Lee, Hyun S.; Cho, Han J.; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki W.; Chun, Hyang S.; Park, Jung H.Y. 2014. "Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 2: 2722-2737.