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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22801-22814; doi:10.3390/ijms151222801

14-3-3 Proteins Participate in Light Signaling through Association with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs

1
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
2
Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells 2014)
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Abstract

14-3-3 proteins are regulatory proteins found in all eukaryotes and are known to selectively interact with phosphorylated proteins to regulate physiological processes. Through an affinity purification screening, many light-related proteins were recovered as 14-3-3 candidate binding partners. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the 14-3-3 kappa isoform (14-3-3κ) could bind to PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Further analysis by in vitro pull-down assay confirmed the interaction between 14-3-3κ and PIF3. Interruption of putative phosphorylation sites on the 14-3-3 binding motifs of PIF3 was not sufficient to inhibit 14-3-3κ from binding or to disturb nuclear localization of PIF3. It was also indicated that 14-3-3κ could bind to other members of the PIF family, such as PIF1 and PIF6, but not to LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1). 14-3-3 mutants, as well as the PIF3 overexpressor, displayed longer hypocotyls, and a pif3 mutant displayed shorter hypocotyls than the wild-type in red light, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins are positive regulators of photomorphogenesis and function antagonistically with PIF3. Consequently, our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins bind to PIFs and initiate photomorphogenesis in response to a light signal. View Full-Text
Keywords: PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF); 14-3-3 protein; light signaling; photomorphogenesis; Arabidopsis thaliana; plant; protein-protein interaction PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF); 14-3-3 protein; light signaling; photomorphogenesis; Arabidopsis thaliana; plant; protein-protein interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adams, E.; Diaz, C.; Hong, J.-P.; Shin, R. 14-3-3 Proteins Participate in Light Signaling through Association with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 22801-22814.

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