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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 21740-21753; doi:10.3390/ijms151221740

Serum Calreticulin Is a Negative Biomarker in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Department of Internal Medicine, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110005, China
2
Neural Department of Internal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
3
Department of Anatomy, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
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Abstract

Calreticulin is down-regulated in the cortical neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of AD. A total of 128 AD patients were randomly recruited from May 2012 to July 2013. The mRNA levels of calreticulin were measured from the serum of tested subjects using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR). Serum levels of calreticulin were determined by ELISA and Western Blot. Serum levels of calreticulin in AD patients were significantly lower than those from a healthy group (p < 0.01). The baseline characters indicated that sample size, gender, mean age, diabetes and BMI (body mass index) were not major sources of heterogeneity. The serum levels of mRNA and protein of calreticulin were lower in AD patients than those from a healthy group, and negatively associated with the progression of AD according to CDR scores (p < 0.01). Thus, there is a trend toward decreased serum levels of calreticulin in the patients with progression of AD. Serum levels of calreticulin can be a negative biomarker for the diagnosis of AD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; serum calreticulin; negative biomarker; real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR; ELISA; western blot Alzheimer’s disease; serum calreticulin; negative biomarker; real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR; ELISA; western blot
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lin, Q.; Cao, Y.; Gao, J. Serum Calreticulin Is a Negative Biomarker in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 21740-21753.

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