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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 19056-19073; doi:10.3390/ijms151019056

Neuroprotective Role of Liver Growth Factor “LGF” in an Experimental Model of Cerebellar Ataxia

1
Service of Neurobiology, Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research (IRYCIS), Madrid 28034, Spain
2
Service of Neurology, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid 28034, Spain
3
Service of Experimental Biochemistry, Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda Hospital, Madrid 28222, Spain
4
Service of Biochemistry, Ramón y Cajal Institute of Sanitary Research (IRYCIS), Madrid 28034, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 2 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract

Cerebellar ataxias (CA) comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by a lack of motor coordination. They are caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuitries, so the major therapeutic goal is to correct cerebellar dysfunction. Neurotrophic factors enhance the survival and differentiation of selected types of neurons. Liver growth factor (LGF) is a hepatic mitogen that shows biological activity in neuroregenerative therapies. We investigate the potential therapeutic activity of LGF in the 3-acetylpiridine (3-AP) rat model of CA. This model of CA consists in the lesion of the inferior olive-induced by 3-AP (40 mg/kg). Ataxic rats were treated with 5 µg/rat LGF or vehicle during 3 weeks, analyzing: (a) motor coordination by using the rota-rod test; and (b) the immunohistochemical and biochemical evolution of several parameters related with the olivo-cerebellar function. Motor coordination improved in 3-AP-lesioned rats that received LGF treatment. LGF up-regulated NeuN and Bcl-2 protein levels in the brainstem, and increased calbindin expression and the number of neurons receiving calbindin-positive projections in the cerebellum. LGF also reduced extracellular glutamate and GABA concentrations and microglia activation in the cerebellum. In view of these results, we propose LGF as a potential therapeutic agent in cerebellar ataxias. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver growth factor; neuroregeneration; cerebellar ataxias; neuroprotection; glutamate; GABA liver growth factor; neuroregeneration; cerebellar ataxias; neuroprotection; glutamate; GABA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Calatrava-Ferreras, L.; Gonzalo-Gobernado, R.; Reimers, D.; Herranz, A.S.; Jiménez-Escrig, A.; Díaz-Gil, J.J.; Casarejos, M.J.; Montero-Vega, M.T.; Bazán, E. Neuroprotective Role of Liver Growth Factor “LGF” in an Experimental Model of Cerebellar Ataxia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 19056-19073.

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