Next Article in Journal
Characterization of an Invertebrate-Type Dopamine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana
Next Article in Special Issue
Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposures on Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genetic Correction of Stem Cells in the Treatment of Inherited Diseases and Focus on Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 605-628; doi:10.3390/ijms15010605

Hypoxic Conditioned Medium from Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Accelerates Skin Wound Healing through TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/Akt Pathways

1
Laboratory of Cell Function Regulation, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-717, Korea
2
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 152-703, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 21 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 6 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Epidermal Stem Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2169 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

In a previous study, we isolated human amniotic fluid (AF)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) and utilized normoxic conditioned medium (AF-MSC-norCM) which has been shown to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. Because hypoxia enhances the wound healing function of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM), it is interesting to explore the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of wound healing function. In this work, hypoxia not only increased the proliferation of AF-MSCs but also maintained their constitutive characteristics (surface marker expression and differentiation potentials). Notably, more paracrine factors, VEGF and TGF-β1, were secreted into hypoxic conditioned medium from AF-MSCs (AF-MSC-hypoCM) compared to AF-MSC-norCM. Moreover, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhanced the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro, and wound closure in a skin injury model, as compared to AF-MSC-norCM. However, the enhancement of migration of fibroblasts accelerated by AF-MSC-hypoCM was inhibited by SB505124 and LY294002, inhibitors of TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT, suggesting that AF-MSC-hypoCM-enhanced wound healing is mediated by the activation of TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT. Therefore, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhances wound healing through the increase of hypoxia-induced paracrine factors via activation of TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs); wound healing; PI3K/AKT; TGF-β/SMAD2 hypoxia; amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs); wound healing; PI3K/AKT; TGF-β/SMAD2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jun, E.K.; Zhang, Q.; Yoon, B.S.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, G.; Park, G.; Kang, P.J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, A.; You, S. Hypoxic Conditioned Medium from Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Accelerates Skin Wound Healing through TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/Akt Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 605-628.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top