Next Article in Journal
The hOGG1 Ser326Cys Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Ectasia in the Chinese Population
Next Article in Special Issue
Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin
Previous Article in Journal
Resveratrol Partially Prevents Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity in Dopaminergic SH-SY5Y Cells through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Dependent Autophagy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hypoxic Conditioned Medium from Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Accelerates Skin Wound Healing through TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/Akt Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 1647-1670; doi:10.3390/ijms15011647

Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development

1 Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Simkova 870, 500 38 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic 2 Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical Faculty in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Simkova 870, 500 38 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 22 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Epidermal Stem Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [415 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-κB signaling. NF-κB regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal β-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFRα expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated β-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth.
Keywords: hair follicle; morphogenesis; stem cell; signaling; Wnt; Shh; Notch; BMP hair follicle; morphogenesis; stem cell; signaling; Wnt; Shh; Notch; BMP
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Rishikaysh, P.; Dev, K.; Diaz, D.; Qureshi, W.M.S.; Filip, S.; Mokry, J. Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1647-1670.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert