Abstract: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signal transduction pathways in all eukaryotic organisms. MAPKKKs (MAPK kinase kinases) operate at the top levels of these cascades. Recently, this family of genes has been systematically investigated in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, but has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we identified 78 putative MAPKKK genes in the genome of the diploid cotton, Gossypium raimondii. They were classified into three subfamilies, of which 12 were ZIK, 22 were MEKK and 44 were Raf. The ZIK and MEKK genes displayed a scattered genomic distribution across 11 of the 13 chromosomes, whereas Raf genes were distributed across the entire genome. Their conserved patterns observed for introns and additional domains were consistent with the evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis within subfamily. Transcriptome sequencing data were used to investigate their transcript profiles in mature leaves, 0 day and 3 days post-anthesis (DPA) ovules. Sixty MAPKKK genes were expressed, of which 41 were strongly expressed in mature leaves. Twelve MAPKKK genes were more highly expressed in 3-DPA ovules than in 0-DPA ovules. Our results provide a foundation for future evolutionary and functional characterizations of MAPKKK genes in cotton and probably other Gossypium plants.
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Yin, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, D.; Fan, W.; Wang, S.; Ye, W. The MAPKKK Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18740-18757.
Yin Z, Wang J, Wang D, Fan W, Wang S, Ye W. The MAPKKK Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Analysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18740-18757.
Yin, Zujun; Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Delong; Fan, Weili; Wang, Shuai; Ye, Wuwei. 2013. "The MAPKKK Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Analysis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18740-18757.