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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18711-18739; doi:10.3390/ijms140918711
Review

Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

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Received: 11 July 2013; in revised form: 27 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism)
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Abstract: Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.
Keywords: agricultural practices; environmental challenges; genotype and environment interactions; grape berry phenolics; varietal diversity; Vitis vinifera agricultural practices; environmental challenges; genotype and environment interactions; grape berry phenolics; varietal diversity; Vitis vinifera
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Teixeira, A.; Eiras-Dias, J.; Castellarin, S.D.; Gerós, H. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18711-18739.

AMA Style

Teixeira A, Eiras-Dias J, Castellarin SD, Gerós H. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18711-18739.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Teixeira, António; Eiras-Dias, José; Castellarin, Simone D.; Gerós, Hernâni. 2013. "Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18711-18739.



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