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Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments
Center for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Department of Biology, School of Sciences, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinary Research (INIAV), Quinta da Almoinha, 2565-191 Dois Portos, Portugal
Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2013; in revised form: 27 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Abstract: Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.
Keywords: agricultural practices; environmental challenges; genotype and environment interactions; grape berry phenolics; varietal diversity; Vitis vinifera
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Teixeira, A.; Eiras-Dias, J.; Castellarin, S.D.; Gerós, H. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18711-18739.
Teixeira A, Eiras-Dias J, Castellarin SD, Gerós H. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18711-18739.
Teixeira, António; Eiras-Dias, José; Castellarin, Simone D.; Gerós, Hernâni. 2013. "Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18711-18739.