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Plant Flavonoids—Biosynthesis, Transport and Involvement in Stress Responses
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Unit of Plant Biology, University of Udine, via delle Scienze 91, Udine I-33100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2013; in revised form: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Abstract: This paper aims at analysing the synthesis of flavonoids, their import and export in plant cell compartments, as well as their involvement in the response to stress, with particular reference to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). A multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) as well as ABC transporters have been demonstrated in the tonoplast of grape berry, where they perform a flavonoid transport. The involvement of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene has also been inferred. Recently, a putative flavonoid carrier, similar to mammalian bilitranslocase (BTL), has been identified in both grape berry skin and pulp. In skin the pattern of BTL expression increases from véraison to harvest, while in the pulp its expression reaches the maximum at the early ripening stage. Moreover, the presence of BTL in vascular bundles suggests its participation in long distance transport of flavonoids. In addition, the presence of a vesicular trafficking in plants responsible for flavonoid transport is discussed. Finally, the involvement of flavonoids in the response to stress is described.
Keywords: flavonoid transport; bilitranslocase; ABC transporters; secondary metabolites; biotic and abiotic stress
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Petrussa, E.; Braidot, E.; Zancani, M.; Peresson, C.; Bertolini, A.; Patui, S.; Vianello, A. Plant Flavonoids—Biosynthesis, Transport and Involvement in Stress Responses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14950-14973.
Petrussa E, Braidot E, Zancani M, Peresson C, Bertolini A, Patui S, Vianello A. Plant Flavonoids—Biosynthesis, Transport and Involvement in Stress Responses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14950-14973.
Petrussa, Elisa; Braidot, Enrico; Zancani, Marco; Peresson, Carlo; Bertolini, Alberto; Patui, Sonia; Vianello, Angelo. 2013. "Plant Flavonoids—Biosynthesis, Transport and Involvement in Stress Responses." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14950-14973.