Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14136-14170; doi:10.3390/ijms140714136
Review

Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance

Received: 25 April 2013; in revised form: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950’s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed.
Keywords: plant engineering; phytoalexins; transcriptional factors; hormones; elicitors; regulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeandet, P.; Clément, C.; Courot, E.; Cordelier, S. Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14136-14170.

AMA Style

Jeandet P, Clément C, Courot E, Cordelier S. Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14136-14170.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Cordelier, Sylvain. 2013. "Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14136-14170.

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