Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13213-13230; doi:10.3390/ijms140713213
Article

Toll-Like Receptor and Accessory Molecule mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice as Well as in Murine Autoimmunity, Transient Inflammation, and Progressive Fibrosis

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Received: 18 April 2013; in revised form: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well described, but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their accessory molecules. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of LBP, MD2, CD36, CD14, granulin, HMGB1, LL37, GRP94, UNC93b1, TRIL, PRAT4A, AP3B1, AEP and the respective TLRs in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. In addition, the expression profiles in transient tissue inflammation upon renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, in spleens and kidneys from mice with lupus-like systemic autoimmunity, and in progressive tissue fibrosis upon unilateral ureteral obstruction were studied. Several TLR co-factors were specifically regulated during the different phases of these disease entities, suggesting a functional involvement in the disease process. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to TLR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in the tissue injury phase, in the phase of tissue regeneration, and in progressive tissue remodelling.
Keywords: inflammation; Toll-like receptors; infection; fibrogenesis; atrophy; pattern recognition receptors; chronic disease; signalling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, V.R.S.; Günthner, R.; Lech, M.; Anders, H.-J. Toll-Like Receptor and Accessory Molecule mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice as Well as in Murine Autoimmunity, Transient Inflammation, and Progressive Fibrosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13213-13230.

AMA Style

Kumar VRS, Günthner R, Lech M, Anders H-J. Toll-Like Receptor and Accessory Molecule mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice as Well as in Murine Autoimmunity, Transient Inflammation, and Progressive Fibrosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13213-13230.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Vankayala Ramaiah S.; Günthner, Roman; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim. 2013. "Toll-Like Receptor and Accessory Molecule mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice as Well as in Murine Autoimmunity, Transient Inflammation, and Progressive Fibrosis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13213-13230.

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