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Thrombospondin-1 in Urological Cancer: Pathological Role, Clinical Significance, and Therapeutic Prospects
Department of Nephro-Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2013; in revised form: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important process for tumor growth and progression of various solid tumors including urological cancers. Thrombospondins (TSPs), especially TSP-1, are representative “anti”-angiogenic molecules and many studies have clarified their pathological role and clinical significance in vivo and in vitro. In fact, TSP-1 expression is associated with clinicopathological features and prognosis in many types of cancers. However, TSP-1 is a multi-functional protein and its biological activities vary according to the specific tumor environments. Consequently, there is no general agreement on its cancer-related function in urological cancers, and detailed information regarding regulative mechanisms is essential for a better understanding of its therapeutic effects and prognostic values. Various “suppressor genes” and “oncogenes” are known to be regulators and TSP-1-related factors under physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, various types of fragments derived from TSP-1 exist in a given tissue microenvironment and TSP-1 derived-peptides have specific activities. However, a detailed pathological function in human cancer tissues is not still understood. This review will focus on the pathological roles and clinical significance of TSP-1 in urological cancers, including prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial cancer. In addition, special attention is paid to TSP-1-derived peptide and TSP-1-based therapy for malignancies.
Keywords: thrombospondin; urological cancer; TSP-1-derived peptide; therapy
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Miyata, Y.; Sakai, H. Thrombospondin-1 in Urological Cancer: Pathological Role, Clinical Significance, and Therapeutic Prospects. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12249-12272.
Miyata Y, Sakai H. Thrombospondin-1 in Urological Cancer: Pathological Role, Clinical Significance, and Therapeutic Prospects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):12249-12272.
Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki. 2013. "Thrombospondin-1 in Urological Cancer: Pathological Role, Clinical Significance, and Therapeutic Prospects." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 12249-12272.