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In Vitro and in Vivo Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
Department of Nutritional Sciences, SD Model Systems of Molecular Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Dornburger Str. 25-29, D-07743 Jena, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2013; in revised form: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Abstract: By now, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be among the most common liver diseases world-wide. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and finally even cirrhosis; however, only a minority of patients progress to end-stages of the disease, and the course of the disease progression to the later stages seems to be slow, developing progressively over several years. Key risk factors including overweight, insulin resistance, a sedentary life-style and an altered dietary pattern, as well as genetic factors and disturbances of the intestinal barrier function have been identified in recent years. Despite intense research efforts that lead to the identification of these risk factors, knowledge about disease initiation and molecular mechanisms involved in progression is still limited. This review summarizes diet-induced and genetic animal models, as well as cell culture models commonly used in recent years to add to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in NAFLD, also referring to their advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: animal models; in vitro models; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; insulin resistance; diet
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kanuri, G.; Bergheim, I. In Vitro and in Vivo Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11963-11980.
Kanuri G, Bergheim I. In Vitro and in Vivo Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11963-11980.
Kanuri, Giridhar; Bergheim, Ina. 2013. "In Vitro and in Vivo Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11963-11980.