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Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer
Bosch Institute, the University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, the University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 13 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.
Keywords: PSA; genomics; antibody microarrays; diagnostic biomarkers; genomics; prostate cancer; proteomics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Velonas, V.M.; Woo, H.H.; Remedios, C.G.; Assinder, S.J. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11034-11060.
Velonas VM, Woo HH, Remedios CG, Assinder SJ. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11034-11060.
Velonas, Vicki M.; Woo, Henry H.; Remedios, Cristobal G.; Assinder, Stephen J. 2013. "Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11034-11060.