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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 11034-11060; doi:10.3390/ijms140611034
Review

Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

1
, 2
, 1,*  and 1,*
1 Bosch Institute, the University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia 2 Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, the University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 13 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
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Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.
Keywords: PSA; genomics; antibody microarrays; diagnostic biomarkers; genomics; prostate cancer; proteomics PSA; genomics; antibody microarrays; diagnostic biomarkers; genomics; prostate cancer; proteomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Velonas, V.M.; Woo, H.H.; Remedios, C.G.; Assinder, S.J. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11034-11060.

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