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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8585-8602; doi:10.3390/ijms14048585

Remotely Triggered Scaffolds for Controlled Release of Pharmaceuticals

1 Guy Hilton Research Centre, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele, ST4 7QB, UK 2 Lennard-Jones Laboratories, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, ST5 5BG, UK 3 Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK 4 School of Pharmacy, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele, ST5 5BG, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2013)
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Fe3O4-Au hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) have shown increasing potential for biomedical applications such as image guided stimuli responsive drug delivery. Incorporation of the unique properties of HNPs into thermally responsive scaffolds holds great potential for future biomedical applications. Here we successfully fabricated smart scaffolds based on thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNiPAM). Nanoparticles providing localized trigger of heating when irradiated with a short laser burst were found to give rise to remote control of bulk polymer shrinkage. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using wet chemical precipitation methods followed by electrochemical coating. After subsequent functionalization of particles with allyl methyl sulfide, mercaptodecane, cysteamine and poly(ethylene glycol) thiol to enhance stability, detailed biological safety was determined using live/dead staining and cell membrane integrity studies through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) quantification. The PEG coated HNPs did not show significant cytotoxic effect or adverse cellular response on exposure to 7F2 cells (p < 0.05) and were carried forward for scaffold incorporation. The pNiPAM-HNP composite scaffolds were investigated for their potential as thermally triggered systems using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. These studies show that incorporation of HNPs resulted in scaffold deformation after very short irradiation times (seconds) due to internal structural heating. Our data highlights the potential of these hybrid-scaffold constructs for exploitation in drug delivery, using methylene blue as a model drug being released during remote structural change of the scaffold.
Keywords: scaffold; smart material; thermo-responsive; hybrid nanoparticle; surface plasmon scaffold; smart material; thermo-responsive; hybrid nanoparticle; surface plasmon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Roach, P.; McGarvey, D.J.; Lees, M.R.; Hoskins, C. Remotely Triggered Scaffolds for Controlled Release of Pharmaceuticals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8585-8602.

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Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert