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Exercise Therapy Augments the Ischemia-Induced Proangiogenic State and Results in Sustained Improvement after Stroke
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2013; in revised form: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
Abstract: The induction of angiogenesis will stimulate endogenous recovery mechanisms, which are involved in the long-term repair and restoration process of the brain after an ischemic event. Here, we tested whether exercise influences the pro-angiogenic factors and outcomes after cerebral infarction in rats. Wistar rats were exposed to two hours of middle-cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Different durations of treadmill training were performed on the rats. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related genes and proteins were higher over time post-ischemia, and exercise enhanced their expression. Sixteen days post-ischemia, the regional cerebral blood flow in the ischemic striatum was significantly increased in the running group over the sedentary. Although no difference was seen in infarct size between the running and sedentary groups, running evidently improved the neurobehavioral score. The effects of running on MMP2 expression, regional cerebral blood flow and outcome were abolished when animals were treated with bevacizumab (BEV), a VEGF-targeting antibody. Exercise therapy improves long-term stroke outcome by MMP2-VEGF-dependent mechanisms related to improved cerebral blood flow.
Keywords: treadmill training; stroke; vascular endothelial growth factor; matrix metalloproteinase 2; bevacizumab
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Ma, Y.; Qiang, L.; He, M. Exercise Therapy Augments the Ischemia-Induced Proangiogenic State and Results in Sustained Improvement after Stroke. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8570-8584.
Ma Y, Qiang L, He M. Exercise Therapy Augments the Ischemia-Induced Proangiogenic State and Results in Sustained Improvement after Stroke. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8570-8584.
Ma, Yuewen; Qiang, Lin; He, Man. 2013. "Exercise Therapy Augments the Ischemia-Induced Proangiogenic State and Results in Sustained Improvement after Stroke." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8570-8584.