Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507/73, 161 06 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Department of Plant Experimental Biology, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2013; in revised form: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Abstract: Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.
Keywords: cold shock; cold and frost acclimation; winter hardiness; hardening; chloroplasts; 2D-DIGE; peptide-mapping
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Hlaváčková, I.; Vítámvás, P.; Šantrůček, J.; Kosová, K.; Zelenková, S.; Prášil, I.T.; Ovesná, J.; Hynek, R.; Kodíček, M. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8000-8024.
Hlaváčková I, Vítámvás P, Šantrůček J, Kosová K, Zelenková S, Prášil IT, Ovesná J, Hynek R, Kodíček M. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8000-8024.
Hlaváčková, Iva; Vítámvás, Pavel; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kosová, Klára; Zelenková, Sylva; Prášil, Ilja T.; Ovesná, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kodíček, Milan. 2013. "Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8000-8024.