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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8000-8024; doi:10.3390/ijms14048000
Article

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor

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Received: 21 January 2013; in revised form: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
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Abstract: Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.
Keywords: cold shock; cold and frost acclimation; winter hardiness; hardening; chloroplasts; 2D-DIGE; peptide-mapping cold shock; cold and frost acclimation; winter hardiness; hardening; chloroplasts; 2D-DIGE; peptide-mapping
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hlaváčková, I.; Vítámvás, P.; Šantrůček, J.; Kosová, K.; Zelenková, S.; Prášil, I.T.; Ovesná, J.; Hynek, R.; Kodíček, M. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8000-8024.

AMA Style

Hlaváčková I, Vítámvás P, Šantrůček J, Kosová K, Zelenková S, Prášil IT, Ovesná J, Hynek R, Kodíček M. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8000-8024.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hlaváčková, Iva; Vítámvás, Pavel; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kosová, Klára; Zelenková, Sylva; Prášil, Ilja T.; Ovesná, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kodíček, Milan. 2013. "Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8000-8024.



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