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Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells
Emmy Noether Group of the DFG, Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, European Heart Research Insitute Göttingen, Georg August University Medical Center, University of Göttingen, Göttingen 37075, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Abstract: Cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers which regulate myriads of functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Their intracellular effects are often mediated via discrete subcellular signaling microdomains. In this review, we will discuss state-of-the-art techniques to measure cAMP and cGMP in biological samples with a particular focus on live cell imaging approaches, which allow their detection with high temporal and spatial resolution in living cells and tissues. Finally, we will describe how these techniques can be applied to the analysis of second messenger dynamics in subcellular signaling microdomains.
Keywords: cAMP; cGMP; Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET); bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET); imaging; compartmentation; microdomain
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sprenger, J.U.; Nikolaev, V.O. Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8025-8046.
Sprenger JU, Nikolaev VO. Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8025-8046.
Sprenger, Julia U.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O. 2013. "Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8025-8046.