Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8025-8046; doi:10.3390/ijms14048025
Review

Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells

 and *
Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
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Abstract: Cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers which regulate myriads of functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Their intracellular effects are often mediated via discrete subcellular signaling microdomains. In this review, we will discuss state-of-the-art techniques to measure cAMP and cGMP in biological samples with a particular focus on live cell imaging approaches, which allow their detection with high temporal and spatial resolution in living cells and tissues. Finally, we will describe how these techniques can be applied to the analysis of second messenger dynamics in subcellular signaling microdomains.
Keywords: cAMP; cGMP; Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET); bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET); imaging; compartmentation; microdomain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sprenger, J.U.; Nikolaev, V.O. Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8025-8046.

AMA Style

Sprenger JU, Nikolaev VO. Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8025-8046.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sprenger, Julia U.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O. 2013. "Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8025-8046.


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