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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 5879-5898; doi:10.3390/ijms14035879
Article

Effect of Different Phospholipids on α-Secretase Activity in the Non-Amyloidogenic Pathway of Alzheimer’s Disease

1,2,3,†,* , 1,†
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1 Experimental Neurology, Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany 2 Neurodegeneration and Neurobiology, Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany 3 Deutsches Institut für DemenzPrävention (DIDP), Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 19 January 2013 / Accepted: 1 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), generated by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. Aβ generation is inhibited when the initial ectodomain shedding is caused by α-secretase, cleaving APP within the Aβ domain. Therefore, an increase in α-secretase activity is an attractive therapeutic target for AD treatment. APP and the APP-cleaving secretases are all transmembrane proteins, thus local membrane lipid composition is proposed to influence APP processing. Although several studies have focused on γ-secretase, the effect of the membrane lipid microenvironment on α-secretase is poorly understood. In the present study, we systematically investigated the effect of fatty acid (FA) acyl chain length (10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0), membrane polar lipid headgroup (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine), saturation grade and the FA double-bond position on α-secretase activity. We found that α-secretase activity is significantly elevated in the presence of FAs with short chain length and in the presence of polyunsaturated FAs, whereas variations in the phospholipid headgroups, as well as the double-bond position, have little or no effect on α-secretase activity. Overall, our study shows that local lipid membrane composition can influence α-secretase activity and might have beneficial effects for AD.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; α-secretase; ADAM10; lipids; phospholipids; chain length; saturation; headgroup Alzheimer’s disease; α-secretase; ADAM10; lipids; phospholipids; chain length; saturation; headgroup
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Grimm, M.O.W.; Haupenthal, V.J.; Rothhaar, T.L.; Zimmer, V.C.; Grösgen, S.; Hundsdörfer, B.; Lehmann, J.; Grimm, H.S.; Hartmann, T. Effect of Different Phospholipids on α-Secretase Activity in the Non-Amyloidogenic Pathway of Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 5879-5898.

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