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Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology
Nesher Technologies, Inc., 2100 W. 3rd St. Los Angeles, CA 90057, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2012; in revised form: 9 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Abstract: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been found to have roles in a large variety of biological processes. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are far more abundant and important than initially imagined, holding great promise for use in diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Within ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most widely studied and characterized. They have been implicated in initiation and progression of a variety of human malignancies, including major pathologies such as cancers, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Their surprising stability in serum and other bodily fluids led to their rapid ascent as a novel class of biomarkers. For example, several properties of stable miRNAs, and perhaps other classes of ncRNAs, make them good candidate biomarkers for early cancer detection and for determining which preneoplastic lesions are likely to progress to cancer. Of particular interest is the identification of biomarker signatures, which may include traditional protein-based biomarkers, to improve risk assessment, detection, and prognosis. Here, we offer a comprehensive review of the ncRNA biomarker literature and discuss state-of-the-art technologies for their detection. Furthermore, we address the challenges present in miRNA detection and quantification, and outline future perspectives for development of next-generation biodetection assays employing multicolor alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) fluorescence spectroscopy.
Keywords: ncRNAs; miRNAs; biomarkers; cancers; SMD; ALEX
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kim, T.; Reitmair, A. Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 4934-4968.
Kim T, Reitmair A. Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):4934-4968.
Kim, Taiho; Reitmair, Armin. 2013. "Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 4934-4968.