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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 4934-4968; doi:10.3390/ijms14034934
Review

Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology

 and †,*
Received: 10 December 2012; in revised form: 9 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs)
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Abstract: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been found to have roles in a large variety of biological processes. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are far more abundant and important than initially imagined, holding great promise for use in diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Within ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most widely studied and characterized. They have been implicated in initiation and progression of a variety of human malignancies, including major pathologies such as cancers, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Their surprising stability in serum and other bodily fluids led to their rapid ascent as a novel class of biomarkers. For example, several properties of stable miRNAs, and perhaps other classes of ncRNAs, make them good candidate biomarkers for early cancer detection and for determining which preneoplastic lesions are likely to progress to cancer. Of particular interest is the identification of biomarker signatures, which may include traditional protein-based biomarkers, to improve risk assessment, detection, and prognosis. Here, we offer a comprehensive review of the ncRNA biomarker literature and discuss state-of-the-art technologies for their detection. Furthermore, we address the challenges present in miRNA detection and quantification, and outline future perspectives for development of next-generation biodetection assays employing multicolor alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) fluorescence spectroscopy.
Keywords: ncRNAs; miRNAs; biomarkers; cancers; SMD; ALEX ncRNAs; miRNAs; biomarkers; cancers; SMD; ALEX
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, T.; Reitmair, A. Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 4934-4968.

AMA Style

Kim T, Reitmair A. Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):4934-4968.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Taiho; Reitmair, Armin. 2013. "Non-Coding RNAs: Functional Aspects and Diagnostic Utility in Oncology." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 4934-4968.



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