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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24438-24475; doi:10.3390/ijms141224438
Review

Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

1
, 2
, 3
, 4,*  and 4
Received: 14 October 2013; in revised form: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract: Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs.
Keywords: aging; oxidative stress; neurotoxicants; signal transduction; neurodegenerative diseases; chemobrain; peripheral neuropathy; pharmaceutical aging; oxidative stress; neurotoxicants; signal transduction; neurodegenerative diseases; chemobrain; peripheral neuropathy; pharmaceutical
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; O, W.; Li, W.; Jiang, Z.-G.; Ghanbari, H.A. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24438-24475.

AMA Style

Li J, O W, Li W, Jiang Z-G, Ghanbari HA. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):24438-24475.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Jie; O, Wuliji; Li, Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Ghanbari, Hossein A. 2013. "Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 24438-24475.


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