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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22436-22448; doi:10.3390/ijms141122436
Article

Fluorescence Intrinsic Characterization of Excitation-Emission Matrix Using Multi-Dimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

1
, 2
 and 3,*
1 Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan 2 Institute of Computer Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan 3 Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
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Abstract

Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for tissue diagnosis and has become important in clinical use. However, the intrinsic characterization of EEM fluorescence remains unclear. Photobleaching and the complexity of the chemical compounds make it difficult to distinguish individual compounds due to overlapping features. Conventional studies use principal component analysis (PCA) for EEM fluorescence analysis, and the relationship between the EEM features extracted by PCA and diseases has been examined. The spectral features of different tissue constituents are not fully separable or clearly defined. Recently, a non-stationary method called multi-dimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) was introduced; this method can extract the intrinsic oscillations on multiple spatial scales without loss of information. The aim of this study was to propose a fluorescence spectroscopy system for EEM measurements and to describe a method for extracting the intrinsic characteristics of EEM by MEEMD. The results indicate that, although PCA provides the principal factor for the spectral features associated with chemical compounds, MEEMD can provide additional intrinsic features with more reliable mapping of the chemical compounds. MEEMD has the potential to extract intrinsic fluorescence features and improve the detection of biochemical changes.
Keywords: excitation-emission matrix (EEM); multi-dimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) excitation-emission matrix (EEM); multi-dimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Hsiao, T.-C. Fluorescence Intrinsic Characterization of Excitation-Emission Matrix Using Multi-Dimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 22436-22448.

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