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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21943-21959; doi:10.3390/ijms141121943

Differentiated Epithelial- and Mesenchymal-Like Phenotypes in Subcutaneous Mouse Xenografts Using Diffusion Weighted-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1
National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
3
Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan
5
School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
6
Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
7
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for tumor metastasis. Detection of EMT protein expression and observation of morphological changes are commonly used to identify EMT. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are noninvasive techniques for characterizing tumor microenvironments. We investigated the difference in ADC values between epithelial- and mesenchymal-like subcutaneous mouse xenografted tumors using DW-MRI. Epithelial-like MM189 PB-Klf4 and BL322 PB-Klf4 cells were generated from tumor suppressive Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4)-expressing mesenchymal-like MM189 and BL322 cells. The ADC values of xenografted tumors from epithelial-like MM189 PB-Klf4 and BL322 PB-Klf4 were significantly lower than those from their mesenchymal-like counterparts (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that DW-MRI is a potential tool for observing mesenchymal- or epithelial-like characteristics of subcutaneous xenografted tumors.
Keywords: diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; epithelial; mesenchymal; apparent diffusion coefficient; mouse xenografts diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; epithelial; mesenchymal; apparent diffusion coefficient; mouse xenografts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-W.; Pan, H.-B.; Tseng, H.-H.; Chu, H.-C.; Hung, Y.-T.; Yen, Y.-C.; Chou, C.-P. Differentiated Epithelial- and Mesenchymal-Like Phenotypes in Subcutaneous Mouse Xenografts Using Diffusion Weighted-Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21943-21959.

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