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Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Implications for Vascular and Other Complications
Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University Medical School, Largo Gemelli 8, Rome 00168, Italy
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Viale Oxford 81, Rome 00133, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2013; in revised form: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Abstract: In recent decades, oxidative stress has become a focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on these studies, an emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway” through which the risk factors for several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell–cell homeostasis; in particular, oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.
Keywords: oxidative stress; reactive oxidative species; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; β-cell dysfunction; vascular complications
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Pitocco, D.; Tesauro, M.; Alessandro, R.; Ghirlanda, G.; Cardillo, C. Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Implications for Vascular and Other Complications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21525-21550.
Pitocco D, Tesauro M, Alessandro R, Ghirlanda G, Cardillo C. Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Implications for Vascular and Other Complications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):21525-21550.
Pitocco, Dario; Tesauro, Manfredi; Alessandro, Rizzi; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Carmine. 2013. "Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Implications for Vascular and Other Complications." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 21525-21550.