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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 19416-19433; doi:10.3390/ijms141019416

Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Kidneys

1
UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
2
Renal Disease Research Group, School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute of Biomolecular & Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
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Abstract

Chemical carcinogens are substances which induce malignant tumours, increase their incidence or decrease the time taken for tumour formation. Often, exposure to chemical carcinogens results in tissue specific patterns of tumorigenicity. The very same anatomical, biochemical and physiological specialisations which permit the kidney to perform its vital roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis may in fact increase the risk of carcinogen exposure and contribute to the organ specific carcinogenicity observed with numerous kidney carcinogens. This review will address the numerous mechanisms which play a role in the concentration, bioactivation, and uptake of substances from both the urine and blood which significantly increase the risk of cancer in the kidney.
Keywords: carcinogen; kidney; proximal tubule; mechanism; bioactivation carcinogen; kidney; proximal tubule; mechanism; bioactivation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Radford, R.; Frain, H.; Ryan, M.P.; Slattery, C.; McMorrow, T. Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Kidneys. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19416-19433.

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