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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 701-713; doi:10.3390/ijms14010701
Article

The Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (AtVDAC1) Negatively Regulates Plant Cold Responses during Germination and Seedling Development in Arabidopsis and Interacts with Calcium Sensor CBL1

1,2
, 2,* , 1
, 1
, 2
, 2
 and 2,*
1 The Genetic Engineering International Cooperation Base of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan) HUST Part, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science & Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074, China 2 Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Triticeae Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
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Abstract

The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a highly conserved major mitochondrial outer membrane protein, plays crucial roles in energy metabolism and metabolite transport. However, knowledge about the roles of the VDAC family in plants is limited. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of VDAC1 in Arabidopsis and found that cold stress promoted the accumulation of VDAC1 transcripts in imbibed seeds and mature plants. Overexpression of VDAC1 reduced tolerance to cold stress in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis of VDAC1 T-DNA insertion mutant plants indicated that a vdac1 mutant line had faster germination kinetics under cold treatment and showed enhanced tolerance to freezing. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that VDAC1 interacts with CBL1, a calcium sensor in plants. Like the vdac1, a cbl1 mutant also exhibited a higher seed germination rate. We conclude that both VDAC1 and CBL1 regulate cold stress responses during seed germination and plant development.
Keywords: Arabidopsis; voltage-dependent anion channel; cold stress; germination; calcium; interaction protein Arabidopsis; voltage-dependent anion channel; cold stress; germination; calcium; interaction protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Li, Z.-Y.; Xu, Z.-S.; He, G.-Y.; Yang, G.-X.; Chen, M.; Li, L.-C.; Ma, Y. The Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (AtVDAC1) Negatively Regulates Plant Cold Responses during Germination and Seedling Development in Arabidopsis and Interacts with Calcium Sensor CBL1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 701-713.

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