Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1455-1476; doi:10.3390/ijms14011455
Review

Role of Oxidative Stress in Refractory Epilepsy: Evidence in Patients and Experimental Models

1,†email, 1,†email, 2email, 3email, 4email, 1,* email and 1,* email
Received: 9 October 2012; in revised form: 6 November 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Oxidative stress, a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with systemic diseases, and diseases affecting the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with refractoriness to drug therapy at about 30%. Currently, experimental evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress in seizures, in the process of their generation, and in the mechanisms associated with refractoriness to drug therapy. Hence, the aim of this review is to present information in order to facilitate the handling of this evidence and determine the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this pathology.
Keywords: oxidative stress; free radicals; refractory epilepsy; pharmacoresistant epilepsy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cardenas-Rodriguez, N.; Huerta-Gertrudis, B.; Rivera-Espinosa, L.; Montesinos-Correa, H.; Bandala, C.; Carmona-Aparicio, L.; Coballase-Urrutia, E. Role of Oxidative Stress in Refractory Epilepsy: Evidence in Patients and Experimental Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1455-1476.

AMA Style

Cardenas-Rodriguez N, Huerta-Gertrudis B, Rivera-Espinosa L, Montesinos-Correa H, Bandala C, Carmona-Aparicio L, Coballase-Urrutia E. Role of Oxidative Stress in Refractory Epilepsy: Evidence in Patients and Experimental Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1455-1476.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cardenas-Rodriguez, Noemi; Huerta-Gertrudis, Bernardino; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Bandala, Cindy; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia. 2013. "Role of Oxidative Stress in Refractory Epilepsy: Evidence in Patients and Experimental Models." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1455-1476.


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