Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1232-1277; doi:10.3390/ijms14011232
Review

From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes

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Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Enzymes found in nature have been exploited in industry due to their inherent catalytic properties in complex chemical processes under mild experimental and environmental conditions. The desired industrial goal is often difficult to achieve using the native form of the enzyme. Recent developments in protein engineering have revolutionized the development of commercially available enzymes into better industrial catalysts. Protein engineering aims at modifying the sequence of a protein, and hence its structure, to create enzymes with improved functional properties such as stability, specific activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards non-natural substrates. Soluble enzymes are often immobilized onto solid insoluble supports to be reused in continuous processes and to facilitate the economical recovery of the enzyme after the reaction without any significant loss to its biochemical properties. Immobilization confers considerable stability towards temperature variations and organic solvents. Multipoint and multisubunit covalent attachments of enzymes on appropriately functionalized supports via linkers provide rigidity to the immobilized enzyme structure, ultimately resulting in improved enzyme stability. Protein engineering and immobilization techniques are sequential and compatible approaches for the improvement of enzyme properties. The present review highlights and summarizes various studies that have aimed to improve the biochemical properties of industrially significant enzymes.
Keywords: immobilization; inhibition; protein engineering; selectivity; stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, R.K.; Tiwari, M.K.; Singh, R.; Lee, J.-K. From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1232-1277.

AMA Style

Singh RK, Tiwari MK, Singh R, Lee J-K. From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1232-1277.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Raushan K.; Tiwari, Manish K.; Singh, Ranjitha; Lee, Jung-Kul. 2013. "From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1232-1277.


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