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Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry
Laboratory of Food Biochemistry, Department of Food Science, College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Monteiro Lobato Street, 80, 13083-862, P.O. Box 6121, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Department of Bioengineering, Higher Technical Institute (IST), Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Laboratory of Multidisciplinary Research, University São Francisco, São Francisco de Assis Av, 218, 12916-900, Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2012; in revised form: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 11 January 2013
Abstract: Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed.
Keywords: carbohydrases immobilization; amylases; invertases; inulinases; galactosidases; glucosidases; fructosyltransferases; pectinases; glucosyltransferases
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Contesini, F.J.; de Alencar Figueira, J.; Kawaguti, H.Y.; de Barros Fernandes, P.C.; de Oliveira Carvalho, P.; da Graça Nascimento, M.; Sato, H.H. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1335-1369.
Contesini FJ, de Alencar Figueira J, Kawaguti HY, de Barros Fernandes PC, de Oliveira Carvalho P, da Graça Nascimento M, Sato HH. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1335-1369.
Contesini, Fabiano J.; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y.; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro C.; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; da Graça Nascimento, Maria; Sato, Hélia H. 2013. "Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1335-1369.