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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11912-11922; doi:10.3390/ijms130911912
Article

Ethyl Gallate Induces Apoptosis of HL-60 Cells by Promoting the Expression of Caspases-8, -9, -3, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor and Endonuclease G

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Received: 10 August 2012; in revised form: 29 August 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Pharmaceuticals by Molecular Farming 2012)
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Abstract: Many phytochemicals have been recognized to have potential therapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated ethyl gallate (EG) for possible proapoptotic effects in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. We examined cell viability, morphological changes, DNA content and fragmentation, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins for up to 48 h after EG treatment. The results showed that EG induced morphological changes and DNA fragmentation and reduced HL-60 cell viability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis indicated that EG-mediated HL-60 apoptosis mainly occurred through the mitochondrial pathway, as shown by the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and endonuclease G (Endo G), as well as the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). EG also activated the death receptor-dependent pathway of apoptosis by enhancing the expression of caspases-8, -9, and -3 and the Bcl-2 interacting domain (Bid). Collectively, our results showed that EG induces apoptosis in HL-60 via mitochondrial-mediated pathways.
Keywords: ethyl gallate; apoptosis; death receptor; mitochondrial-mediated pathways ethyl gallate; apoptosis; death receptor; mitochondrial-mediated pathways
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, W.-H.; Song, H.-O.; Choi, H.-J.; Bang, H.-I.; Choi, D.-Y.; Park, H. Ethyl Gallate Induces Apoptosis of HL-60 Cells by Promoting the Expression of Caspases-8, -9, -3, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor and Endonuclease G. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11912-11922.

AMA Style

Kim W-H, Song H-O, Choi H-J, Bang H-I, Choi D-Y, Park H. Ethyl Gallate Induces Apoptosis of HL-60 Cells by Promoting the Expression of Caspases-8, -9, -3, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor and Endonuclease G. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11912-11922.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Woong-Hyun; Song, Hyun-Ok; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Bang, Ho-Il; Choi, Du-Young; Park, Hyun. 2012. "Ethyl Gallate Induces Apoptosis of HL-60 Cells by Promoting the Expression of Caspases-8, -9, -3, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor and Endonuclease G." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11912-11922.


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