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Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach
CIMO-Mountain Research Center, Agricultural College of Bragança, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Bragança 5301-855, Portugal
Department of Anatomy and Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Galicia, Spain
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Galicia, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2012; in revised form: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 7 September 2012
Abstract: Since the primordial of humanity, pollen has been considered a good source of nutrients and energy. Its promising healing properties have also been referred to. The present study aimed to characterize, for the first time, eight commercial pollens from Portugal and Spain available on the market studying the legislation on labeling, pollinic origin, physicochemical and microbiological analyses and identification of yeasts. Eleven botanical families were found amongst the samples. The most abundant family and the most dominant pollen was Cistaceae. The moisture content, ash, aw, pH, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and energy were analyzed and the specific parameters were within the specifications required by some countries with legislation regarding these parameters. Microbiologically commercial pollen showed acceptable safety for the commercial quality and hygiene. All samples showed negative results for toxigenic species. The microorganisms studied were aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. During the work, six yeasts species were isolated from pollen, with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa being the most abundant, as it was present in four samples.
Keywords: bee pollen; microbiological characterization; physicochemical characterization; pollinic analysis; labeling rules
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Nogueira, C.; Iglesias, A.; Feás, X.; Estevinho, L.M. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11173-11187.
Nogueira C, Iglesias A, Feás X, Estevinho LM. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11173-11187.
Nogueira, Carla; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesus; Estevinho, Leticia M. 2012. "Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11173-11187.