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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11173-11187; doi:10.3390/ijms130911173
Article

Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach

1,†
, 2,†
, 3
 and 1,*
Received: 23 July 2012; in revised form: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 7 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: Since the primordial of humanity, pollen has been considered a good source of nutrients and energy. Its promising healing properties have also been referred to. The present study aimed to characterize, for the first time, eight commercial pollens from Portugal and Spain available on the market studying the legislation on labeling, pollinic origin, physicochemical and microbiological analyses and identification of yeasts. Eleven botanical families were found amongst the samples. The most abundant family and the most dominant pollen was Cistaceae. The moisture content, ash, aw, pH, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and energy were analyzed and the specific parameters were within the specifications required by some countries with legislation regarding these parameters. Microbiologically commercial pollen showed acceptable safety for the commercial quality and hygiene. All samples showed negative results for toxigenic species. The microorganisms studied were aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. During the work, six yeasts species were isolated from pollen, with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa being the most abundant, as it was present in four samples.
Keywords: bee pollen; microbiological characterization; physicochemical characterization; pollinic analysis; labeling rules bee pollen; microbiological characterization; physicochemical characterization; pollinic analysis; labeling rules
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nogueira, C.; Iglesias, A.; Feás, X.; Estevinho, L.M. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11173-11187.

AMA Style

Nogueira C, Iglesias A, Feás X, Estevinho LM. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11173-11187.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nogueira, Carla; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesus; Estevinho, Leticia M. 2012. "Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11173-11187.



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