Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8449-8466; doi:10.3390/ijms13078449
Review

Flexible and Versatile as a Chameleon—Sophisticated Functions of microRNA-199a

 and *
Received: 8 June 2012; in revised form: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs 2012)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [427 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Although widely studied in the past decade, our knowledge of the functional role of microRNAs (miRNAs) remains limited. Among the many miRNAs identified in humans, we focus on miR-199a due to its varied and important functions in diverse models and systems. Its expression is finely regulated by promoter methylation and direct binding of transcription factors such as TWIST1. During tumorigenesis, depending on the nature of the cancer, miR-199a, especially its -3p mature form, may act as either a potential tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Its 5p mature form has been shown to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxic damage via its action on HIF1α. It also has a functional role in stem cell differentiation, embryo development, hepatitis, liver fibrosis, etc. Though it has varied biological activities, its regulation has not been reviewed. The varied and protean functions of miR-199a suggest that efforts to generalize the action of a miRNA are problematic. This review provides a comprehensive survey of the literature on miR-199a as an example of the complexity of miRNA biology and suggests future directions for miRNA research.
Keywords: microRNA; targets; miRNA-199a microRNA; targets; miRNA-199a
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, S.; Chan, W.-Y. Flexible and Versatile as a Chameleon—Sophisticated Functions of microRNA-199a. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8449-8466.

AMA Style

Gu S, Chan W-Y. Flexible and Versatile as a Chameleon—Sophisticated Functions of microRNA-199a. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):8449-8466.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Shen; Chan, Wai-Yee. 2012. "Flexible and Versatile as a Chameleon—Sophisticated Functions of microRNA-199a." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 8449-8466.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert