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Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries
PTE-MTA “Lendulet” PACAP Research Team, Department of Anatomy, University of Pecs, Szigeti. u. 12, H-7624 Pecs, Hungary
MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pecs, Ret u. 2, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1101 E. Marshall Street Richmond, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
Department of Surgery, Medical School, University of Pecs, Ret u. 2., H-7623 Pecs, Hungary
These authors contributed equally to the present work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2012; in revised form: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
Abstract: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system.
Keywords: endogenous; injury; neuroprotection; pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; trauma
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Tamas, A.; Reglodi, D.; Farkas, O.; Kovesdi, E.; Pal, J.; Povlishock, J.T.; Schwarcz, A.; Czeiter, E.; Szanto, Z.; Doczi, T.; Buki, A.; Bukovics, P. Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8430-8448.
Tamas A, Reglodi D, Farkas O, Kovesdi E, Pal J, Povlishock JT, Schwarcz A, Czeiter E, Szanto Z, Doczi T, Buki A, Bukovics P. Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):8430-8448.
Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Farkas, Orsolya; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Pal, Jozsef; Povlishock, John T.; Schwarcz, Attila; Czeiter, Endre; Szanto, Zalan; Doczi, Tamas; Buki, Andras; Bukovics, Peter. 2012. "Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 8430-8448.