Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Characterization of in Vitro Modified Human Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Phospholipids by Capillary Electrophoresis
Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50058, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2012; in revised form: 24 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
Abstract: A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was used to characterize human very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles for four healthy donors. One major peak was observed for native, in vitro oxidized and glycated VLDL particles. The effective mobilities and peak areas of the capillary electrophoresis (CE) profiles showed good reproducibility and precision. The mobility of the oxidized VLDL peak was higher than that of the native VLDL. The mobility of the glycated VLDL peak was similar to that of the native VLDL. Phospholipids isolated from VLDL particles were analyzed by our recently developed micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with a high-salt stacking method. At absorbance 200 nm, the native VLDL phospholipids showed a major peak and a minor peak for each donor. For oxidized VLDL phospholipids, the area of the major peak reduced for three donors, possibly due to phospholipid decomposition. For glycated VLDL phospholipids, the peak mobilities were more positive than native VLDL phospholipids for two donors, possibly due to phospholipid-linked advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Very interestingly, at absorbance 234 nm, the major peak of oxidized VLDL phospholipids was resolved as two peaks for each donor, possibly due to conjugated dienes formed upon oxidation.
Keywords: very low-density lipoprotein; phospholipids; solid phase extraction; capillary zone electrophoresis; micellar electrokinetic chromatography; in vitro oxidation; in vitro glycation
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Liu, Y.-N.; Shu, T.-Y.; Xie, H.-G.; Lai, W.-T.; Liao, Y.-H.; Su, M.-Y.; Lin, Y.-S.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Lin, Y.-J.; Chong, C.-P.; Liu, M.-Y. Characterization of in Vitro Modified Human Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Phospholipids by Capillary Electrophoresis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 16400-16417.
Liu Y-N, Shu T-Y, Xie H-G, Lai W-T, Liao Y-H, Su M-Y, Lin Y-S, Chen Y-Y, Lin Y-J, Chong C-P, Liu M-Y. Characterization of in Vitro Modified Human Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Phospholipids by Capillary Electrophoresis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):16400-16417.
Liu, Yi-Ning; Shu, Ting-Yu; Xie, Huai-Guang; Lai, Wei-Ting; Liao, Yi-Han; Su, Mei-Yu; Lin, You-Sian; Chen, Yen-Yi; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Chong, Chin-Pong; Liu, Mine-Yine. 2012. "Characterization of in Vitro Modified Human Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Phospholipids by Capillary Electrophoresis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 16400-16417.