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Effects of Nickel, Chlorpyrifos and Their Mixture on the Dictyostelium discoideum Proteome
Department of Science & Technological Innovation (DiSIT), The University of Eastern Piedmont Amedeo Avogadro, Alessandria, Novara, Vercelli, Viale Teresa Michel, 11-15121 Alessandria, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2012; in revised form: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 15 November 2012 / Published: 23 November 2012
Abstract: Mixtures of chemicals can have additive, synergistic or antagonistic interactions. We investigated the effects of the exposure to nickel, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at effect concentrations (EC) of 25% and 50% and their binary mixture (Ec25 + EC25) on Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae based on lysosomal membrane stability (LMS). We treated D. discoideum with these compounds under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the changes in protein levels using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) proteomic approach. Nickel treatment at EC25 induced changes in 14 protein spots, 12 of which were down-regulated. Treatment with nickel at EC50 resulted in changes in 15 spots, 10 of which were down-regulated. Treatment with chlorpyrifos at EC25 induced changes in six spots, all of which were down-regulated; treatment with chlorpyrifos at EC50 induced changes in 13 spots, five of which were down-regulated. The mixture corresponding to EC25 of each compound induced changes in 19 spots, 13 of which were down-regulated. The data together reveal that a different protein expression signature exists for each treatment, and that only a few proteins are modulated in multiple different treatments. For a simple binary mixture, the proteomic response does not allow for the identification of each toxicant. The protein spots that showed significant differences were identified by mass spectrometry, which revealed modulations of proteins involved in metal detoxification, stress adaptation, the oxidative stress response and other cellular processes.
Keywords: Dictyostelium discoideum; toxicity; nickel; chlorpyrifos; proteomics; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style
Boatti, L.; Robotti, E.; Marengo, E.; Viarengo, A.; Marsano, F. Effects of Nickel, Chlorpyrifos and Their Mixture on the Dictyostelium discoideum Proteome. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15679-15705.
Boatti L, Robotti E, Marengo E, Viarengo A, Marsano F. Effects of Nickel, Chlorpyrifos and Their Mixture on the Dictyostelium discoideum Proteome. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):15679-15705.
Boatti, Lara; Robotti, Elisa; Marengo, Emilio; Viarengo, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco. 2012. "Effects of Nickel, Chlorpyrifos and Their Mixture on the Dictyostelium discoideum Proteome." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 15679-15705.