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Form Follows Function: Structural and Catalytic Variation in the Class A Flavoprotein Monooxygenases
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3210 N. Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211-3029, WI, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2012; in revised form: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 23 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavins
Abstract: Flavoprotein monooxygenases (FPMOs) exhibit an array of mechanistic solutions to a common chemical objective; the monooxygenation of a target substrate. Each FPMO efficiently couples reduction of a flavin cofactor by NAD(P)H to oxygenation of the target substrate via a (hydro)peroxyflavin intermediate. This purpose of this review is to describe in detail the Class A flavoprotein hydroxylases (FPMO) in the context of the other FPMO classes (B–F). Both one and two component FPMOs are found in nature. Two-component enzymes require, in addition to the monooxygenase, the involvement of a reductase that first catalyzes the reduction of the flavin by NAD(P)H. The Class A and B FPMOs are single-component and manage to orchestrate the same net reaction within a single peptide. The Class A enzymes have, by some considerable margin, the most complete research record. These enzymes use choreographed movements of the flavin ring that facilitate access of the organic substrates to the active site, provide a means for interaction of NADPH with the flavin, offer a mechanism to sequester the dioxygen reduction chemistry from solvent and a means to release the product. The majority of the discrete catalytic events of the catalytic cycle can be observed directly in exquisite detail using spectrophotometric kinetic methods and many of the key mechanistic conclusions are further supported by structural data. This review attempts to compile each of the key observations made for both paradigm and newly discovered examples of Class A FPMOs into a complete catalytic description of one enzymatic turnover.
Keywords: monooxygenase; flavin; flavoprotein; molecular oxygen; oxygenase; monooxygenase
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Crozier-Reabe, K.; Moran, G.R. Form Follows Function: Structural and Catalytic Variation in the Class A Flavoprotein Monooxygenases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15601-15639.
Crozier-Reabe K, Moran GR. Form Follows Function: Structural and Catalytic Variation in the Class A Flavoprotein Monooxygenases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):15601-15639.
Crozier-Reabe, Karen; Moran, Graham R. 2012. "Form Follows Function: Structural and Catalytic Variation in the Class A Flavoprotein Monooxygenases." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 15601-15639.