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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 15523-15535; doi:10.3390/ijms131215523
Article

Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Human Hepatoma Cell Apoptosisvia Bax/Bak Triggered Cytochrome C Release and Caspase-9/Caspase-8 Activation

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Received: 4 September 2012; in revised form: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 15 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
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Abstract: Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in a variety of cancer cells. However, the details of the signal transduction cascade involved in G-Rh2-induced cell death is unclear. In this manuscript we elucidate the molecular mechanism of G-Rh2-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells by demonstrating that G-Rh2 causes rapid and dramatic translocation of both Bak and Bax, which subsequently triggers mitochondrial cytochrome c release and consequent caspase activation. Interestingly, siRNA-based gene inactivation of caspase-8 effectively delays caspase-9 activation and apoptosis induced by G-Rh2, indicating that caspase-8 also plays an important role in the G-Rh2-induced apoptosis program. Taken together, our results indicate that G-Rh2 employs a multi pro-apoptotic pathway to execute cancer cell death, suggesting a potential role for G-Rh2 as a powerful chemotherapeutic agent.
Keywords: apoptosis; Bax/Bak translocation; caspase activation cascade; caspase-8/Bid pathway; ginsenoside Rh2 apoptosis; Bax/Bak translocation; caspase activation cascade; caspase-8/Bid pathway; ginsenoside Rh2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, X.-X.; Guo, Q.; Li, Y.; Lee, S.K.; Wei, X.-N.; Jin, Y.-H. Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Human Hepatoma Cell Apoptosisvia Bax/Bak Triggered Cytochrome C Release and Caspase-9/Caspase-8 Activation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15523-15535.

AMA Style

Guo X-X, Guo Q, Li Y, Lee SK, Wei X-N, Jin Y-H. Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Human Hepatoma Cell Apoptosisvia Bax/Bak Triggered Cytochrome C Release and Caspase-9/Caspase-8 Activation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):15523-15535.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Xiao-Xi; Guo, Qiao; Li, Yang; Lee, Seung K.; Wei, Xue-Ning; Jin, Ying-Hua. 2012. "Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Human Hepatoma Cell Apoptosisvia Bax/Bak Triggered Cytochrome C Release and Caspase-9/Caspase-8 Activation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 15523-15535.



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