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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 14115-14126; doi:10.3390/ijms131114115
Article

Callose Deposition Is Required for Somatic Embryogenesis in Plasmolyzed Eleutherococcus senticosus Zygotic Embryos

1
, 2
, 1
 and 1,*
Received: 28 July 2012; in revised form: 21 September 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 31 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: Dynamic changes in callose content, which is deposited as a plant defense response to physiological changes, were analyzed during somatic embryogenesis in Eleutherococcus senticosus zygotic embryos plasmolyzed in 1.0 M mannitol. During plasmolysis, callose deposition was clearly observed inside the plasma membrane of zygotic embryo epidermal cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The callose content of zygotic embryos gradually increased between 0 and 12 h plasmolysis and remained stable after 24 h plasmolysis. During eight weeks induction of somatic embryogenesis, the callose content of explants plasmolyzed for 12 h was slightly higher than explants plasmolyzed for 6 or 24 h, with the largest differences observed after 6 weeks culture, which coincided with the maximum callose content and highest number of globular somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryo formation was observed in explants plasmolyzed for 12 h. The somatic embryo induction rate and number of somatic embryos per explant were markedly different in zygotic embryos pretreated with plasmolysis alone (78.0%, 43 embryos per explant) and those pretreated with plasmolysis and the callose synthase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (11.5%, 8 embryos per explant). This study indicates that callose production is required for somatic embryogenesis in plasmolyzed explants.
Keywords: somatic embryogenesis; plasmolysis; callose deposition somatic embryogenesis; plasmolysis; callose deposition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tao, L.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.; You, X. Callose Deposition Is Required for Somatic Embryogenesis in Plasmolyzed Eleutherococcus senticosus Zygotic Embryos. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 14115-14126.

AMA Style

Tao L, Yang Y, Wang Q, You X. Callose Deposition Is Required for Somatic Embryogenesis in Plasmolyzed Eleutherococcus senticosus Zygotic Embryos. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):14115-14126.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qiuyu; You, Xiangling. 2012. "Callose Deposition Is Required for Somatic Embryogenesis in Plasmolyzed Eleutherococcus senticosus Zygotic Embryos." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 14115-14126.



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