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Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation
College of Oriental Medicine and Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Shinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
Center for Bioanalysis, Division of Metrology for Quality of Life, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Doryong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-340, Korea
Hanbang Body-fluid Research Center, Wonkwang University, Shinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk, 570-749, Korea
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Jeonmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2011; in revised form: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Abstract: Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV) on high glucose (HG)-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.
Keywords: Prunella vulgaris; inflammation; NF-κB; eNOS; Nrf2; atherosclerosis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hwang, S.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Yoon, J.J.; Lee, S.M.; Kim, J.S.; Kang, D.G.; Lee, H.S. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 1258-1268.
Hwang SM, Lee YJ, Yoon JJ, Lee SM, Kim JS, Kang DG, Lee HS. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(1):1258-1268.
Hwang, Sun Mi; Lee, Yun Jung; Yoon, Jung Joo; Lee, So Min; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub. 2012. "Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 1: 1258-1268.