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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4504-4521; doi:10.3390/ijms12074504

Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer

1
Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
2
Diagnostic and Translational Research Center, Henry Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Gaithersburg, MD 20789, USA
3
Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
4
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, 102 Varsity Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 4 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
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Abstract

Breast cancer is a progressive and potentially fatal disease that affects women of all ages. Like all progressive diseases, early and reliable diagnosis is the key for successful treatment and annihilation. Biomarkers serve as indicators of pathological, physiological, or pharmacological processes. Her2/neu, CA15.3, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and cytokeratins are biomarkers that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. The structural and functional complexity of protein biomarkers and the heterogeneity of the breast cancer pathology present challenges to the scientific community. Here we review estrogen receptor-related putative breast cancer biomarkers, including those of putative breast cancer stem cells, a minor population of estrogen receptor negative tumor cells that retain the stem cell property of self renewal. We also review a few promising cytoskeleton targets for ER alpha negative breast cancer.
Keywords: biomarker; breast cancer; chromatography; DCIS; electrophoresis; estrogen receptor; metastasis; proteomics biomarker; breast cancer; chromatography; DCIS; electrophoresis; estrogen receptor; metastasis; proteomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sahab, Z.J.; Man, Y.-G.; Byers, S.W.; Sang, Q.-X. Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 4504-4521.

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