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This paper was retracted on 9 February 2012, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 1804.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2325-2335; doi:10.3390/ijms12042325

Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells

Received: 5 February 2011 / Revised: 12 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 4 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Toxicology)
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To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using 1H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed.
Keywords: metabolomics; metabonomics; IBD; DSS; NMR; Caco-2; alanine transaminase; Crohn’s disease; ALAT; ALT metabolomics; metabonomics; IBD; DSS; NMR; Caco-2; alanine transaminase; Crohn’s disease; ALAT; ALT
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ye, Z.; Mishchuk, D.O.; Stephens, N.S.; Slupsky, C.M. Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 2325-2335.

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