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Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2011; in revised form: 12 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 4 April 2011
Abstract: To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using 1H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed.
Keywords: metabolomics; metabonomics; IBD; DSS; NMR; Caco-2; alanine transaminase; Crohn’s disease; ALAT; ALT
This paper was retracted on 9 February 2012: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/2/1804
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It has been brought to our attention by the corresponding author that the results presented this
article  are in error due to the fact that the media supplement glutaMAX was used in place of
L-glutamine for culture of the control cells, while L-glutamine was used for culture of the treated cells.
All authors have confirmed that the reported result could not be reproduced using the correct culture
conditions. We would like to thank the authors for pointing out this error thereby upholding the ethics of
scientific publication. The Editorial Team and Publisher have agreed with the authors that this
manuscript should be retracted. We apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused.
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Ye, Z.; Mishchuk, D.O.; Stephens, N.S.; Slupsky, C.M. Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 2325-2335.
Ye Z, Mishchuk DO, Stephens NS, Slupsky CM. Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(4):2325-2335.
Ye, Zhong; Mishchuk, Darya O.; Stephens, Natasha S.; Slupsky, Carolyn M. 2011. "Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 4: 2325-2335.