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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8288-8301; doi:10.3390/ijms12118288
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Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy

1,2
, 3
 and 1,2,*
Received: 3 November 2011; in revised form: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Abstract: Nanoparticles are nanometer-scaled particles, and can be utilized in the form of nanocapsules, nanoconjugates, or nanoparticles themselves for the treatment of retinopathy, including angiogensis-related blindness, retinal degeneration, and uveitis. They are thought to improve the bioavailability in the retina and the permeability of therapeutic molecules across the barriers of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, and especially, blood-retinal barriers (BRBs). However, consisting of multiple neuronal cells, the retina can be the target of neuronal toxicity of nanoparticles, in common with the central and peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, the ability of nanoparticles to pass through the BRBs might increase the possibility of toxicity, simultaneously promoting distribution in the retinal layers. In this regard, we discussed nanotechnology and nanotoxicology in the treatment of retinopathy.
Keywords: blood-retinal barrier; diabetic retinopathy; macular degeneration; nanoparticles; retinal degeneration; retinal diseases; toxicology; uveitis blood-retinal barrier; diabetic retinopathy; macular degeneration; nanoparticles; retinal degeneration; retinal diseases; toxicology; uveitis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jo, D.H.; Lee, T.G.; Kim, J.H. Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8288-8301.

AMA Style

Jo DH, Lee TG, Kim JH. Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(11):8288-8301.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Jeong Hun. 2011. "Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 8288-8301.



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