Next Article in Journal
Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced Cell Death Through Inhibition of Mitochondrial Intrinsic Cell Death Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Active Protein Aggregates Produced in Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8288-8301; doi:10.3390/ijms12118288
Review

Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy

1,2
, 3
 and 1,2,*
1 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Korea 2 Fight against Angiogenesis-Related Blindness (FARB) Laboratory, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, Korea 3 Center for Nano-Bio Technology, Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejon 305-340, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinorganic Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [474 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Nanoparticles are nanometer-scaled particles, and can be utilized in the form of nanocapsules, nanoconjugates, or nanoparticles themselves for the treatment of retinopathy, including angiogensis-related blindness, retinal degeneration, and uveitis. They are thought to improve the bioavailability in the retina and the permeability of therapeutic molecules across the barriers of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, and especially, blood-retinal barriers (BRBs). However, consisting of multiple neuronal cells, the retina can be the target of neuronal toxicity of nanoparticles, in common with the central and peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, the ability of nanoparticles to pass through the BRBs might increase the possibility of toxicity, simultaneously promoting distribution in the retinal layers. In this regard, we discussed nanotechnology and nanotoxicology in the treatment of retinopathy.
Keywords: blood-retinal barrier; diabetic retinopathy; macular degeneration; nanoparticles; retinal degeneration; retinal diseases; toxicology; uveitis blood-retinal barrier; diabetic retinopathy; macular degeneration; nanoparticles; retinal degeneration; retinal diseases; toxicology; uveitis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Jo, D.H.; Lee, T.G.; Kim, J.H. Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8288-8301.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert