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Cytotoxic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Embryonic Development in Mouse Blastocysts
Department of Bioscience Technology and Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan
Received: 2 January 2010; Accepted: 10 February 2010 / Published: 11 February 2010
Abstract: 2-Bromopropane (2-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is used as a cleaning solvent. Here, we examined the cytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without 2-BP (2.5, 5 or 10 μM) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated with dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and implantation and post-implantation development of embryos were assessed using in vitro development analysis and in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 5 or 10 μM 2-BP displayed significantly increased apoptosis, and decreased inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell number. Additionally, the implantation success rates of 2-BP-pretreated blastocysts were lower than those of untreated controls. In vitro treatment with 5 or 10 μM 2-BP was associated with increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weights. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to 2-BP induces apoptosis, suppresses implantation rates after transfer to host mice, and retards early postimplantation development.
Keywords: 2-bromopropane; blastocyst; apoptosis; embryonic development
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chan, W.-H. Cytotoxic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Embryonic Development in Mouse Blastocysts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 731-744.
Chan W-H. Cytotoxic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Embryonic Development in Mouse Blastocysts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(2):731-744.
Chan, Wen-Hsiung. 2010. "Cytotoxic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Embryonic Development in Mouse Blastocysts." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 2: 731-744.