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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 4066-4087;

Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, 136 Health Professions Building, 3225 Eden Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45267-0004, USA
Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, ML-0592, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0592, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2009 / Revised: 9 September 2009 / Accepted: 11 September 2009 / Published: 15 September 2009
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Skin pigmentary abnormalities are seen as aesthetically unfavorable and have led to the development of cosmetic and therapeutic treatment modalities of varying efficacy. Hence, several putative depigmenting agents aimed at modulating skin pigmentation are currently being researched or sold in commercially available products. In this review we will discuss the regulation of processes that control skin complexion coloration. This includes direct inhibition of tyrosinase and related melanogenic enzymes, regulation of melanocyte homeostasis, alteration of constitutive and facultative pigmentation and down-regulation of melanosome transfer to the keratinocytes. These various processes, in the complex mechanism of skin pigmentation, can be regulated individually or concomitantly to alter complexion coloration and thus ameliorate skin complexion diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: depigmenting agents; hyperpigmentation; melanin; pigment; tyrosinase depigmenting agents; hyperpigmentation; melanin; pigment; tyrosinase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ebanks, J.P.; Wickett, R.R.; Boissy, R.E. Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4066-4087.

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