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Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, 136 Health Professions Building, 3225 Eden Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45267-0004, USA
Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, ML-0592, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0592, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2009; in revised form: 9 September 2009 / Accepted: 11 September 2009 / Published: 15 September 2009
Abstract: Skin pigmentary abnormalities are seen as aesthetically unfavorable and have led to the development of cosmetic and therapeutic treatment modalities of varying efficacy. Hence, several putative depigmenting agents aimed at modulating skin pigmentation are currently being researched or sold in commercially available products. In this review we will discuss the regulation of processes that control skin complexion coloration. This includes direct inhibition of tyrosinase and related melanogenic enzymes, regulation of melanocyte homeostasis, alteration of constitutive and facultative pigmentation and down-regulation of melanosome transfer to the keratinocytes. These various processes, in the complex mechanism of skin pigmentation, can be regulated individually or concomitantly to alter complexion coloration and thus ameliorate skin complexion diseases.
Keywords: depigmenting agents; hyperpigmentation; melanin; pigment; tyrosinase
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Ebanks, J.P.; Wickett, R.R.; Boissy, R.E. Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4066-4087.
Ebanks JP, Wickett RR, Boissy RE. Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(9):4066-4087.
Ebanks, Jody P.; Wickett, R. R.; Boissy, Raymond E. 2009. "Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 9: 4066-4087.