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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1773-1787; doi:10.3390/ijms10041773
Article

Phenolic Compounds Protect Cultured Hippocampal Neurons against Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Oxidative Stress

1,* , 2
, 1
 and 1
Received: 24 February 2009; in revised form: 27 March 2009 / Accepted: 15 April 2009 / Published: 20 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Abstract: Ethanol withdrawal is linked to elevated oxidative damage to neurons. Here we report our findings on the contribution of phenolic antioxidants (17β-estradiol, p-octyl-phenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) to counterbalance sudden ethanol withdrawal-initiated oxidative events in hippocampus-derived cultured HT-22 cells. We showed that ethanol withdrawal for 4 h after 24-h ethanol treatment provoked greater levels of oxidative damage than the preceding ethanol exposure. Phenolic antioxidant treatment either during ethanol exposure or ethanol withdrawal only, however, dose-dependently reversed cellular oxidative damage, as demonstrated by the significantly enhanced cell viability, reduced malondialdehyde production and protein carbonylation, compared to untreated cells. Interestingly, the antioxidant treatment schedule had no significant impact on the observed neuroprotection. In addition, the efficacy of the three phenolic compounds was practically equipotent in protecting HT-22 cells in spite of predictions based on an in silico study and a cell free assay of lipid peroxidation. This finding implies that free-radical scavenging may not be the sole factor responsible for the observed neuroprotection and warrants further studies to establish, whether the HT-22 line is indeed a suitable model for in vitro screening of antioxidants against EW-related neuronal damage.
Keywords: Ethanol withdrawal; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Phenolic antioxidant; Protein carbonylation Ethanol withdrawal; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Phenolic antioxidant; Protein carbonylation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prokai-Tatrai, K.; Prokai, L.; Simpkins, J.W.; Jung, M.E. Phenolic Compounds Protect Cultured Hippocampal Neurons against Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Oxidative Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 1773-1787.

AMA Style

Prokai-Tatrai K, Prokai L, Simpkins JW, Jung ME. Phenolic Compounds Protect Cultured Hippocampal Neurons against Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Oxidative Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(4):1773-1787.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Prokai, Laszlo; Simpkins, James W.; Jung, Marianna E. 2009. "Phenolic Compounds Protect Cultured Hippocampal Neurons against Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Oxidative Stress." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 4: 1773-1787.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert