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Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing
Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2009; in revised form: 26 March 2009 / Accepted: 2 April 2009 / Published: 17 April 2009
Abstract: Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.
Keywords: Phosphotransfer enzymes; system bioenergetics; energy transfer; adenosine 5’-triphosphate; adenosine 5’-monophosphate; nucleotide metabolism; AMP-activated protein kinase; ATP-sensitive potassium channel
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Dzeja, P.; Terzic, A. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 1729-1772.
Dzeja P, Terzic A. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(4):1729-1772.
Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre. 2009. "Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 4: 1729-1772.