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Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces
Department of Chemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA
Department of Electric Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2008; in revised form: 7 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 February 2009 / Published: 12 February 2009
Abstract: The surface attachment properties of the Creutz-Taube ion, i.e., [(NH3)5Ru(pyrazine)Ru(NH3)5]5+, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the Creutz-Taube ions only bound to hydrophilic surfaces, such as SiO2 and –OH terminated organic SAMs on gold substrates. No attachment of the ions on hydrophobic surfaces such as –CH3 terminated organic SAMs and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) thin films covered gold or SiO2 substrates was observed. Further ellipsometric, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-dependent XPS studies suggested that the attached cations could form an inorganic analog of the self-assembled monolayer on SiO2 substrate with a “lying-down” orientation. The strong electrostatic interaction between the highly charged cations and the anionic SiO2 surface was believed to account for these observations. Based on its selective binding property, patterning of wide (~200 nm) and narrow (~35 nm) lines of the Creutz-Taube ions on SiO2 surface were demonstrated through PMMA electron resist masks written by electron beam lithography (EBL).
Keywords: Creutz-Taube ions; Surface; Hydrophilic; Hydrophobic; XPS; AFM; Self-assembled Monolayers; E-beam lithography; PMMA; Nanopatterning
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Wang, Y.; Lieberman, M.; Hang, Q.; Bernstein, G. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 533-558.
Wang Y, Lieberman M, Hang Q, Bernstein G. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(2):533-558.
Wang, Yuliang; Lieberman, Marya; Hang, Qingling; Bernstein, Gary. 2009. "Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 2: 533-558.