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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092230

Influence of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking Modes on the Recyclability of Immobilized Lipase B from Candida antarctica for Transesterification of Soy Bean Oil

1
Laboratório de Metaloenzimas e Biomiméticos, Departamento de Química, UFSCar, São Carlos-SP 13565-905, Brazil
2
Departamento de Física e Ciências Interdisciplinares, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos-SP 13563-120, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Analítica, Bioanalítica, Biossensores, Eletroanalítica e Sensores, Departamento de Química, UFSCar, São Carlos-SP 13565-905, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Frank Hollmann, Selin Kara and Caroline E. Paul
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier in Biocatalysis for Organic Synthesis)
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Abstract

Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B) is largely employed as a biocatalyst for hydrolysis, esterification, and transesterification reactions. CAL-B is a good model enzyme to study factors affecting the enzymatic structure, activity and/or stability after an immobilization process. In this study, we analyzed the immobilization of CAL-B enzyme on different magnetic nanoparticles, synthesized by the coprecipitation method inside inverse micelles made of zwitterionic surfactants, with distinct carbon chain length: 4 (ImS4), 10 (ImS10) and 18 (ImS18) carbons. Magnetic nanoparticles ImS4 and ImS10 were shown to cross-link to CAL-B enzyme via a Michael-type addition, whereas particles with ImS18 were bond via pyridine formation after glutaraldehyde cross-coupling. Interestingly, the Michael-type cross-linking generated less stable immobilized CAL-B, revealing the influence of a cross-linking mode on the resulting biocatalyst behavior. Curiously, a direct correlation between nanoparticle agglomerate sizes and CAL-B enzyme reuse stability was observed. Moreover, free CAL-B enzyme was not able to catalyze transesterification due to the high methanol concentration; however, the immobilized CAL-B enzyme reached yields from 79.7 to 90% at the same conditions. In addition, the transesterification of lipids isolated from oleaginous yeasts achieved 89% yield, which confirmed the potential of immobilized CAL-B enzyme in microbial production of biodiesel. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipase; enzyme immobilization; magnetic nanoparticles; cross-linking types; biodiesel synthesis lipase; enzyme immobilization; magnetic nanoparticles; cross-linking types; biodiesel synthesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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A. Modenez, I.; Sastre, D.E.; C. Moraes, F.; Marques Netto, C.G.C. Influence of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking Modes on the Recyclability of Immobilized Lipase B from Candida antarctica for Transesterification of Soy Bean Oil. Molecules 2018, 23, 2230.

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