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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092229

Fluorescent Thienothiophene-Containing Squaraine Dyes and Threaded Supramolecular Complexes with Tunable Wavelengths between 600–800 nm

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 236 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maged Henary
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract

A new family of fluorescent thiophene and thienothiophene-containing squaraine dyes is described with tunable wavelengths that cover the absorption/emission range of 600–800 nm. The deep-red and near-infrared fluorescent compounds were easily prepared by simple synthesis and purification methods. Spectral studies showed that each squaraine was rapidly encapsulated by a tetralactam macrocycle, with nanomolar affinity in water, to produce a threaded supramolecular complex with high chemical stability, increased fluorescence quantum yield, and decreased fluorescence quenching upon dye self-aggregation. Energy transfer within the supramolecular complex permitted multiplex emission. That is, two separate dyes with fluorescence emission bands that match the popular Cy5 and Cy7 channels, could be simultaneously excited with a beam of 375 nm light. A broad range of practical applications is envisioned in healthcare diagnostics, microscopy, molecular imaging, and fluorescence-guided surgery. View Full-Text
Keywords: near infrared dye; fluorescence; supramolecular recognition; non-covalent; host guest; synthesis; quantum yield; multiplex imaging near infrared dye; fluorescence; supramolecular recognition; non-covalent; host guest; synthesis; quantum yield; multiplex imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, W.; McGarraugh, H.H.; Smith, B.D. Fluorescent Thienothiophene-Containing Squaraine Dyes and Threaded Supramolecular Complexes with Tunable Wavelengths between 600–800 nm. Molecules 2018, 23, 2229.

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